All about Human Hormones (A-M)

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List of Human Hormones (A-M)

 

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The following is a list of hormones found in humans.

Name

Effect

Adiponectin

 

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (or corticotropin)

synthesis of corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and androgens) in adrenocortical cells

Aldosterone

Increase blood volume by reabsorption of sodium in kidneys (primarily)

Potassium and H+ secretion in kidney.

Androstenedione

Substrate for oestrogen

Angiotensinogen and angiotensin

vasoconstriction

release of aldosterone from adrenal cortex dipsogen.

Antidiuretic hormone (or vasopressin, arginine vasopressin)

retention of water in kidneys
moderate vasoconstriction
Release ACTH in anterior pituitary

Antimullerian hormone (or mullerian inhibiting factor or hormone)

Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary

Atrial-natriuretic peptide (or atriopeptin)

 

Brain natriuretic peptide

(To a minor degree than ANP) reduce blood pressure by:

reducing systemic vascular resistance, reducing blood water, sodium and fats

Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D3)

Inactive form of vitamin D3

Calcitonin

Construct bone, reduce blood Ca2+

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3)

Active form of vitamin D3

Increase absorption of calcium and phosphate from gastrointestinal tract and kidneys inhibit release of PTH

Cholecystokinin

Release of digestive enzymes from pancreas

Release of bile from gallbladder hunger suppressant

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Release ACTH from anterior pituitary

Cortisol

Stimulation of gluconeogenesis

Inhibition of glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue Mobilization of amino acids from extrahepatic tissues Stimulation of fat breakdown in adipose tissue anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive

Dehydroepiandrosterone

Virilization, anabolic

Dihydrotestosterone

 

Dopamine (or prolactin inhibiting hormone)

Increase heart rate and blood pressure
Inhibit release of prolactin and TRH from anterior pituitary

Endothelin

Smooth muscle contraction of stomach

Enkephalin

Regulate pain

Epinephrine (or adrenaline)

Fight-or-flight response:

Boosts the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles (by increasing heart rate and stroke volume, vasodilation, increasing catalysis of glycogen in liver, breakdown of lipids in fat cells. dilate the pupils Suppress non-emergency bodily processes (e.g. digestion) Suppress immune system

Erythropoietin

Stimulate erythrocyte production

Estradiol

Females:

Structural:

promote formation of female secondary sex characteristics

accelerate height growth

accelerate metabolism (burn fat)

reduce muscle mass

stimulate endometrial growth

increase uterine growth

maintenance of blood vessels and skin

reduce bone resorption, increase bone formation

Protein synthesis:

increase hepatic production of binding proteins

Coagulation:

increase circulating level of factors 2, 7, 9, 10, antithrombin III, plasminogen

increase platelet adhesiveness

Increase HDL, triglyceride, height growth Decrease LDL, fat deposition Fluid balance:

salt (sodium) and water retention

increase growth hormone

increase cortisol, SHBG

Gastrointestinal tract:

reduce bowel motility

increase cholesterol in bile

Melanin:

increase pheomelanin, reduce eumelanin

Cancer: support hormone-sensitive breast cancers  Suppression of production in the body of oestrogen is a treatment for these cancers.

Lung function:

promote lung function by supporting alveoli[.

Males: Prevent apoptosis of germ cells

Estriol

 

Estrone

 

Follicle-stimulating hormone

In female: stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles in ovary.

In male: spermatogenesis, enhances production of androgen-binding protein by the Sertoli cells of the testes

Gastrin

Secretion of gastric acid by parietal cells

Ghrelin

Stimulate appetite,

secretion of growth hormone from anterior pituitary gland

Glucagon

glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in liver

increases blood glucose level

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

Release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary.

Growth hormone

stimulates growth and cell reproduction

Release Insulin-like growth factor 1 from liver

Growth hormone-releasing hormone

Release GH from anterior pituitary

Histamine

stimulate gastric acid secretion

Human chorionic gonadotropin

promote maintenance of corpus luteum during beginning of pregnancy

Inhibit immune response, towards the human embryo.

Human placental lactogen

increase production of insulin and IGF-1

increase insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance

Inhibin

 

Insulin

Intake of glucose, glycogenesis and glycolysis in liver and muscle from blood

intake of lipids and synthesis of triglycerides in adipocytes Other anabolic effects

Insulin-like growth factor (or somatomedin)

insulin-like effects

regulate cell growth and development

Leptin

decrease of appetite and increase of metabolism.

Leukotrienes

 

Lipotropin

lipolysis and steroidogenesis,
stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin

Luteinizing hormone

In female: ovulation

In male: stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone

Melanocyte stimulating hormone

melanogenesis by melanocytes in skin and hair

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine)

antioxidant and causes drowsiness

 

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