List of Bacterial Diseases


List of Bacterial Diseases


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Species of human pathogenic bacteria




Bacillus anthracis

Contact with sheep, goats and horses

Inhalation or skin penetration through abrasions of spore-contaminated dust

Cutaneous anthrax

Pulmonary anthrax

Gastrointestinal anthrax

Bordetella pertussis

Contact with respiratory droplets expelled by infected human hosts.

Whooping cough


Secondary bacterial pneumonia

Borrelia burgdorferi

Ixodes ticks
reservoir in deer, mice and other rodents

Lyme disease

Brucella abortus

Brucella canis

Brucella melitensis

Brucella suis

Direct contact with infected animal

Oral, by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or milk products


Campylobacter jejuni

Faecal/oral from animals (mammals and fowl)

Contaminated meat (especially poultry)

Contaminated water

Acute enteritis

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Respiratory droplets

Community-acquired respiratory infection

Chlamydia trachomatis

Sexual (NGU, LGV)

Direct or contaminated surfaces and flies (trachoma)

Passage through birth canal (ICN)

Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)


Inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN)

Chlamydophila psittaci

Inhalation of dust with secretions or feces from birds (e.g. parrots)


Clostridium botulinum

Spores from soil and aquatic sediments contaminating vegetables, meat and fish


Clostridium difficile

Spores both indoors and outdoors

Human flora, overgrowing when other flora is depleted

Pseudomembranous colitis

Clostridium perfringens

Spores in soil

Human flora in vagina and GI tract

Gas gangrene

Acute food poisoning

Anaerobic cellulitis

Clostridium tetani

Spores in soil infecting puncture wounds, severe burns or surgery


Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Respiratory droplets

Part of human flora


Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium

Part of human flora, opportunistic or entering through GI tract or urinary system wounds

Nosocomial infections

Escherichia coli (generally)

Part of gut flora, spreading extraintestinally or proliferating in the GI tract

Urinary tract infections (UTI)


Meningitis in infants

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)

Faecal-oral through food and water

Direct physical contact

Traveller's diarrhea

Enteropathogenic E. coli

Vertical, in utero or at birth

Diarrhoea in infants

E. coli O157:H7

Reservoir in cattle

Hemorrhagic colitis

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome

Francisella tularensis

Vector-borne by anthropods

Infected wild or domestic animals, birds or house pets


Haemophilus influenzae

Droplet contact

Human flora of e.g. upper respiratory tract

Bacterial meningitis

Upper respiratory tract infections

Pneumonia, bronchitis

Helicobacter pylori

Colonizing stomach

Unclear person-to-person transmission

Peptic ulcer

Risk factor for gastric carcinoma and gastric B-cell lymphoma

Legionella pneumophila

Droplet contact, from e.g. cooling towers, humidifiers, air conditioners and water distribution systems

Legionnaire's Disease

Pontiac fever

Leptospira interrogans

Food and water contaminated by e.g. urine from wild or domestic animals. Leptospira survives for weeks in stagnant water.


Listeria monocytogenes

Dairy products, ground meats, poultry

Vertical to newborn or foetus


Mycobacterium leprae

Prolonged human-human contact, e.g. through exudates from skin lesions to abrasion of other person

Leprosy (Hansen's disease)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Droplet contact


Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Human flora

Droplet contact

Mycoplasma pneumonia

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Sexually transmitted

vertical in birth


Ophthalmia neonatorum

Septic arthritis

Neisseria meningitidis

Respiratory droplets

Meningococcal disease including meningitis

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Infects damaged tissues or people with reduced immunity.

Pseudomonas infection

Localized to eye, ear, skin, urinary, respiratory or gastrointestinal tract or CNS, or systemic with bacteraemia, secondary pneumonia bone and joint infections, endocarditis, skin, soft tissue or CNS infections.

Rickettsia rickettsii

Bite of infected wood or dog tick

Rocky mountain spotted fever

Salmonella typhi


Faecal-oral through food or water

Typhoid fever type salmonellosis (dysentery, colitis)

Salmonella typhimurium


Food contaminated by fowl (e.g. eggs), pets and other animals

Salmonellosis with gastroenteritis and enterocolitis

Shigella sonnei



Contaminated food or water

Bacillary dysentery/Shigellosis

Staphylococcus aureus

Human flora on mucosae in e.g. anterior nares and vagina, entering through wound


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